What’s the ‘Internet of Everything?’

IoE by Cisco graphic for WordPress blog2 041214 I have been following the trends of “Internet of Things” (IoT) and “Internet of Everything” (IoE) for a number of years while considering how these trends might affect organizational productivity. On my professional Pinterest page, almost 100 resources on these overlapping topics have been collected. One such resource is Hess (2014) who defined IoT as “a system where the Internet is connected to the physical world via ubiquitous sensors” (para. 1) and noted that sensors can be any device that gathers data and reports back to a data collection facility such as a data warehouse, a database, or log server. Thus, the “The Internet of Things is not just about gathering of data but also about the analysis and use of data” and gave the classic example of the Internet Coke Machine designed by computer science students in 1982 to keep them from making a wasted trip to the Coke machine only to find it empty! According to Chui, Löffler, and Roberts, two types of applications from IoT include : (1) information and analysis and (2) automation and control. Better quality information can lead to enhanced decision-making in organizations. For instance, the tracking of products through embedded sensors to track RFID tags as products move through the supply chain are being utilized to improve inventory management. According to Chui et al. (2010), situational awareness is enhanced as decision makers are given real-time data through visualization technologies allowing them to make needed adjustments. Also, IoT can support more complex human planning and decision making. For instance, the oil and gas industry is relying on the sociomateriality of mediated data through extensive sensor networks placed in the earth’s crust thereby allowing for decision-making at a distance and lowering the costs of development and improving the flow of oil (See also Monteiro, Almklov, and Hepsø 2012; McWhorter, 2014). IoT has the potential for enhancing decision-making in organizations based on higher quality information being provided from tracking customer behavior. Also, enhanced situational awareness, and sensor-driven decision analytics are improved. In the meantime, automation and control types of IoT depicted by Chui et al. (2010) include: process optimization (i.e. automated control of closed systems), optimized resource consumption (i.e. smart meters), and complex autonomus systems (i.e. collision avoidance systems that sense objects and apply brake).

Internet of Everything (IoE)

IoE by Cisco graphic for WordPress blog 041214 Recently, I have been interested in the Internet of Everything (IoE) because it moves IoT to a new realm. Cisco (2013) described IoE as: “People. Process. Data. Things. Yesterday, they functioned independently. Today, the Internet of Everything (IoE) brings them all together by combining machine-to-machine (M2M), person-to-machine (P2M), and person-to-person (P2P) connections”. This is an avenue toward a sustainable competitive advantage. And, IoE certainly should be of interest to those researching Virtual Human Resource Development (Virtual HRD) as it underscores the need for Technology Development for the acquisition of skills necessary to understand and implement the changes for people, process, data and things. –Rochell McWhorter Connect with Rochell on LinkedIn: http://www.linkedin.com/in/rochellmcwhorter

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Source: sloan.mit.edu

Source: sloan.mit.edu

What is ‘Big Data’ and how does it apply to HRD?

This is a great article by Bernard Marr discussing what “Big Data” is, and how it is now and in the future affecting organizations. He discusses that in the world of ‘Big Data’ they talk about the four Vs that characterize big data:

  • Volume – the vast amounts of data generated every second
  • Velocity – the speed at which new data is generated and moves around (credit card fraud detection is a good example where millions of transactions are checked for unusual patterns in almost real time)
  • Variety – the increasingly different types of data (from financial data to social media feeds, from photos to sensor data, from video capture to voice recordings)
  • Veracity – the messiness of the data (just think of Twitter posts with hash tags, abbreviations, typos and colloquial speech)

So, we have a lot of data, in different formats, that is often fast moving and of varying quality – why would that change the world? The reason the world will change is that we now have the technology to bring all of this data together and analyze it.

As HRD professionals, we must be abreast of how we can leverage this data and its analysis for building capacity and capability in our organizations. Building these new skills that are required to handle big data are precisely the point of Virtual HRD.

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Real-Time Collaboration with Web-Conferencing

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Last month, the Virtual HRD, Technology and Distance Learning special interest group (VHRD SIG) for the Academy of Human Resource Development (ahrd.org) organization held an online “Brown Bag” luncheon utilizing Cisco’s WebEx (www.webex.com) platform to connect members for this special event. Attendees joined through their computer or mobile device to experience real-time (synchronous) video in HD format from the presenter. The text chat feature was very useful for attendees to ask questions and engage with one another about the topic. WebEx (and similar web-based platforms) allows for increased productivity by meeting “within” integrative technology (see McWhorter, 2011) while avoiding costly travel expenses and time away from the workplace.

To host a meeting through WebEx, an account is required. For a group of 3 or less, the cost is free for standard quality video. Other pricing plans range from $24-$89 (allowing for 8-100 attendees and HD video; see: http://www.webex.com/plans/meetings-plans.html), and the subscription is good for a month. After creating an account, the host initiates an email with meeting link to invited participants. The attendee simply touches on the link and chooses to connect with audio through a phone # or computer. A helpful “check your audio and video” tool is available upon login. This web-based platform is easy to use and integrates voice-over internet protocol (VoIP) audio, desktop sharing, a whiteboard, text chat, and file-sharing tools; and, the presenter’s role is easily passed to others in the group. Also, the meeting is easily recorded for archiving and playback.

WebEx is very useful for collaboration within virtual workgroups, engagement of students in online learning, facilitation for faculty virtual office hours, and hosting real-time online events such as SIG meetings, webinars, and conference calls with multiple stakeholders. Now, with its mobile capabilities and free apps for Apple, Blackberry, and Android platforms, it might be the perfect tool for your next virtual meet-up!

Reference:

McWhorter, R. R. (2011). Scenario planning as the development of leadership capability and capacity; and Virtual Human Resource Development. Texas A&M University (unpublished dissertation).

For more information, contact Rochell McWhorter at: rmcwhorter@uttyler.edu

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MOOCs –Passing Fad or the Real Deal?

MOOCs for WordPress blog

Due to their potential to creatively disrupt the well-established Higher Ed business model, Massive Open Online Classes (MOOCs) are catching the eye of both Higher Educators and tech-savvy professionals. Hiles (2013) suggested that MOOCs are the “Next Big Thing” with “Silicon Valley and academia abuzz”. So, what are MOOCs and what does it mean for Virtual HRD?

Companies such as Coursera (founded by two Stanford computer professors), edX (formed through a new partnership of MIT and Harvard; see MITnews, 2012) and Udacity (built by a Stanford professor; see DeSantis, 2012) provide course management for free online courses that enroll thousands of students in each course. University leaders such as Harvard and MIT are providing one or more MOOCs. Doing so may alleviate student loan debt crisis recently in the headlines (CNNMoney, 2012).

Strauss (2013) commented that although students in MOOCs were initially excited to take a course from a Stanford or other high profile university professor, less than a fourth of students, actually completed their MOOC. As Rosen (2012) pointed out, a dropout rate of 75% or more would be an alarming non-completion course rate for any university.
However, do not expect MOOCs to go away any time soon.

With funding from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the American Council on Education (ACE) will be seeking ways that students in MOOCs could receive college credit to aid course completion. ACE recently announced that five of Coursera’s MOOCs were deemed to be close enough in quality to a campus-based class they agreed credit should offered for course completion (Groux, 2013). Other large university systems such as The University of Texas, edX’s newest MOOC partner, “wants to use [MOOCs] to get more students through college more quickly and for less money” (Kolowich, 2012).

Hiles concluded, “Though MOOCs may sound gimmicky and faddy and even silly, they are the real deal. They’re spawning a supporting ecosystem. And they just may be the future of education”. This phenomenon resonates the essence of Virtual HRD:  “utilizing technologically intergrative environments for increasing learning capacity” (McWhorter, 2011) through formal, informal, and lifelong learning.

References

CNNMoney (2012). Fed: Student loans soar 275% over past decade. Retrieved from http://money.cnn.com/2012/05/31/news/economy/fed-student-loans/index.htm

DeSantis, N. (2012). Stanford professor gives up [tenured] teaching position, hopes to reach 500,000 students at online start-up. The Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved from http://chronicle.com/blogs/wiredcampus/stanford-professor-gives-up-teaching-position-hopes-to-reach-500000-students-at-online-start-up/35135

Groux, C. (2013). American Council on Education approves 5 MOOCs for course credit. Retrieved from http://www.usnewsuniversitydirectory.com/articles/american-council-on-education-approves-5-moocs-for_12941.aspx

Hiles, H. (2013). How MOOCs will shape the future of higher education. LinkedIn. Retrieved from http://www.linkedin.com/today/post/article/20130204175240-1265384-how-moocs-will-shape-the-future-of-higher-education

Kolowich, S. (2012). Texas MOOCs for Credit? Inside Higher Ed. Retrieved from http://www.insidehighered.com/news/2012/10/16/u-texas-aims-use-moocs-reduce-costs-increase-completion

MITnews (2012). What is edX? Answering common questions about MIT and Harvard’s new partnership in online education. Retrieved from http://web.mit.edu/newsoffice/2012/edx-faq-050212.html

Rosen, R. J. (2012). Overblown-claims-of-failure watch: How not to gauge the success of online courses. The Atlantic. Retrieved from http://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2012/07/overblown-claims-of-failure-watch-how-not-to-gauge-the-success-of-online-courses/260159/

Strauss, V. (2013). ‘Irrational exuberance’ over MOOCs. The Washington Post. Retrieved from http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/answer-sheet/wp/2013/01/27/irrational-exuberance-over-moocs/

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Grief Education in the Age of Social Media

The death of a loved one or co-worker can have devastating effects on employees in the workplace including low productivity, change in attitude and motivation (See Vivona & Ty, 2011).  Also, recent news headlines on shootings and other tragedies termed shared trauma can also impact the lives of employees for many years (Pascale, 2011).

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A recent study by McWhorter, Mancuso and Lindhjem (2012) located evidence of sophisticated technologies such as social media and virtual worlds that are being utilized for grief education. For employees who are reluctant to participate in face-to-face counseling or support groups as well as those at a distance that prohibiting participation in such services, virtual grief education is a viable alternative for them.

The researchers’ findings included the discovery of: Facebook groups offering peer grief support, numerous organizational websites devoted to grief support and education through online collaboration, Twitter groups devoted solely to grief education and support, and groups found in virtual worlds such as Second Life offering the ability of real-time communication via avatar providing a high level of privacy (McWhorter, et al).

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References

The Compassionate Friends (2012). Retrieved from: http://twitter.com/TCFofUSA

McWhorter, R. R., Mancuso, D. S., & Lindhjem, K. A. (2012). Virtual resources as grief education: Web environments for coping with loss. Adult Education Research Conference, May 31-June 3, 2012, Saratoga Springs, New York.

Pascale, A. (2011). 9/11 A decade later: Study finds shared trauma still a factor.     Retrieved from http://manhattan.ny1.com/content/top_stories/136113/9-11-a-decade-later–study-finds-shared-trauma-still-a-factor

Vivona, B.,  &  Ty, R. (2011). Traumatic death in the workplace: Why should HRD care? Advances in Developing Human Resources, 13(1), 99-113.

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Virtual HRD and Related Literature

This is a listing of some currently gathered literature on Virtual Human Resource Development (VHRD) from a number of sources that might be useful:

Year

Title

Type

Citation

1998 Virtual HR: Strategic human resource management in the 21st century Journal Article Lepak, D. P., & Snell, S. A. (1998). Virtual HR: Strategic human resource management in the 21st century. Human Resource Management Review, 8(3), 215-234. doi: 10.1016/s1053-4822(98)90003-1
2003 An exploratory field study of the impact of communication technology on trust within virtual teams. Dissertation Tocci, D. (2003). An exploratory field study of the impact of communication technology on trust within virtual teams. Dissertation Abstracts International
2006 How organizational culture and change are embedded in an organization’s intranet Dissertation Bennett, E. E. (2006). How organizational culture and change are embedded in an organization’s intranet. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Georgia, Athens.  
2008 Adult Learning in Virtual Environments Conference Proceedings McWhorter, R. R., Mancuso, D. S., & Hurt, A. C. (2008). Adult learning in a virtual environment. In T. J. Chermack, J. Storberg-Walker, & C. M. Graham (Eds.), Refereed proceedings of the 2008 Academy of Human Resource Development Annual Research Conference (pp. 1148-1152). Bowling Green, OH: Academy of Human Resource Development.
2009 The Emergence of Virtual Human Resource Development Conference Proceedings McWhorter, R. R., Mancuso, D. S., Chlup, D. T., & Demps, E. L. (2009).The emergence of Virtual HRD. In T. J. Chermack, J. Storberg-Walker, & C. M. Graham (Eds.), Refereed proceedings of the 2009 Academy of Human Resource Development Annual Research Conference (pp. 3035-3039). Bowling Green, OH: Academy of Human Resource Development.
2009 Virtual HRD: The Intersection

of Knowledge Management,

Culture, and Intranets

Journal Article Bennett, E. E. (2009). Virtual HRD: The intersection of knowledge management, culture, and intranets. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 11(6), 362-374. doi:10.1177/1523422309339724
2009 Communications Technology, Emotional Intelligence, and Impact on Performance: A Conceptual Exploration of Connections Journal Article Graham, C. M. (2009). Communications technology, emotional intelligence, and impact on performance: A conceptual exploration of connections. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 11(6), 773-783. doi: 10.1177/1523422309360695
2009 HRD’s Role in Knowledge Management Journal Article Cho, Y., Cho, E., & McLean, G. N. (2009). HRD’s Role in Knowledge Management. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 11(3), 263-272, doi: 10.1177/1523422309337719
2010 Exploring the Emergence of Virtual Human Resource Development Journal Article McWhorter, R. R. (2010). Exploring the emergence of virtual human resource development. Advances in Developing Human Resources. 12(6), 623-631. doi: 10.1177/1523422310395367
2010 The Ecology of Virtual Human Resource Development Journal Article Bennett, E. E., & Bierema, L. L. (2010). The ecology of virtual human resource development. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 12(6), 632-647, doi: 10.1177/1523422310394789
2010 Harnessing and Optimal

Utilization of Human Capital in Virtual Workplace Environments

Journal Article Nafukho, F. M., Graham, C. M., & Muyia, H. M. A. (2010). Harnessing and optimal utilization of human capital in virtual workplace environments. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 12(6), 648-664. doi: 10.1177/1523422310394791
2010 Measurement of Outcomes in Virtual Environments Journal Article Chapman, D. D., & Stone, S. J. (2010). Measurement of outcomes in virtual environments. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 12(6), 665-680. doi: 10.1177/1523422310394792
2010 A Study of Adult Learning in a

Virtual World

Journal Article Mancuso, D. S., Chlup, D. T., & McWhorter, R. R. (2010). A study of adult learning in a virtual world. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 12(6), 681-699. 10.1177/1523422310395368
2010 Managing Employees’ Motivation, Cognition, and Performance in Virtual Workplaces: The Blueprint of a Game-based Adaptive Performance Platform (GAPP) Journal Article Huang, W. D., Han, S., Park, U., & Seo, J. J. (2010). Managing employees’ motivation, cognition, and performance in virtual workplaces: The blueprint of a game-based adaptive performance

platform (GAPP). Advances in Developing Human Resources, 12(6), 700-714. doi: 10.1177/1523422310394794

2010 Systemizing Virtual Learning and Technologies by Managing Organizational Competency and Talents Journal Article Yoon, S. W., & Lim, D. H. (2010). Systemizing virtual learning and technologies by managing organizational competency and talents. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 12(6), 715-727. doi: 10.1177/1523422310394795
2010 The Coming Paradigm Shift: Synthesis and Future Directions

for Virtual HRD

Journal Article Bennett, E. E. (2010). The coming paradigm shift: Synthesis and future directions for Virtual HRD. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 12(6), 728-741. doi: 10.1177/1523422310394796
2010 Foreword: Reflections on Virtual HRD From a Scholar-Practitioner Journal Article Short, D. (2010). Foreword: Reflections on virtual HRD from a scholar-practitioner. Advances in Developing Human Resource Development, 12(6), 619-622. doi: 10.1177/1523422310394788
2010 Organizational and collaborative knowledge management: a Virtual HRD model based on Web2.0 Journal Article Hanandi, M., & Grimaldi, M. (2010). Organizational and collaborative knowledge management: a Virtual HRD model based on Web2.0. International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications ( IJACSA ), 1(4), 11 – 19.
2011 Integrative Informal Learning: The Key to Tacit Knowledge in Virtual HRD? Conference Proceedings Bennett, E. (2011). Integrative informal learning in virtual HRD: The key to tacit knowledge? Refereed Proceedings of the Academy of Human Resource Development Research Conference, Feb 23-Feb 26, 2011; Schaumberg, IL.
2011 Returning to the Foundations of HRD: How HRD is Positioned at the Intersection of Micro and Macroeconomics, and why all HRD Research Should Explicate its Implications for Economics Conference Proceedings Carter, S.D. & Hughes, C. (2011). Returning to the Foundations of HRD:  How HRD is Positioned at the Intersection of Micro and Macro Economics, and why all HRD Research Should Explicate its Implications for Economics. Refereed Proceedings of the Academy of Human Resource Development Research Conference, Feb 23-Feb 26, 2011; Schaumberg, IL.
2011 Scenario Planning as the Development of Leadership Capability and Capacity; and Virtual Human Resource Development Dissertation McWhorter, R. R. (2011). Scenario planning as the development of leadership capability and capacity; and Virtual Human Resource Development. Texas A&M University (unpublished dissertation).

 

2011 Exploring the Contribution of Virtual Worlds to Learning in Organizations Journal Article Li, J., D’Souza, & D., Du, Y. (2011). Exploring the contribution of virtual worlds to learning in organizations. Human Resource Development Review, 10(3), 264-285.

doi: 10.1177/1534484311406421

2012 Life Long Learning In South Korea Conference Proceedings Awen, D. K. (2012). Life long learning in South Korea. Refereed Proceedings of the Academy of Human Resource Development Research Conference, Feb 28-March 3, 2012, Denver, Colorado USA.
2012 Exploring a Virtual Learning Environment for Nanotechnology Safety Training Conference Proceedings McWhorter, R. R., & Lindhjem, K. A. (2012). Exploring a virtual learning environment for nanotechnology safety training. Refereed Proceedings of the Academy of Human Resource Development Research Conference, Feb 28-March 3, 2012, Denver, Colorado USA.
2012 A Review and Critique of Foundational Change Theories and Implications for the Modern Workforce Journal Article Coates, K. L. (2012). A review and critique of foundational change theories and implications for the modern workforce. Refereed Proceedings of the Academy of Human Resource Development Research Conference, Feb 28-March 3, 2012, Denver, Colorado USA.
2012 Facilitating Transition from Higher Education to the Workforce: A Literature Review of ePortfolios as Virtual Human Resource Development

 

Conference Proceedings McWhorter, R. R., & Bennett, E. E. (2012). Facilitating transition from higher education to the workforce: A literature review of ePortfolios as Virtual Human Resource Development. Refereed Proceedings of the Academy of Human Resource Development Research Conference, Feb 28-March 3, 2012, Denver, Colorado USA.
2012 Eportfolios as Virtual HRD: A Review of Literature and Analysis of a Tool in a Graduate Medical Education Program Conference Proceedings Bennett, E. E., McWhorter, R. R., & Sankey, H. Z. (2012). Eportfolios as Virtual HRD: A review of literature and analysis of a tool in a graduate medical education program. Refereed Proceedings of the Academy of Human Resource Development Research Conference, Feb 28-March 3, 2012, Denver, Colorado USA.
2012 The Coworking Industry and Contingent Workers: Implications for HRD Conference Proceedings Coons, L. M., Veliquette, A., Luckel, H., Coates, T., Gonzalez, R., & Gauck, B. (2012). The coworking industry and contingent workers: Implications for HRD. Refereed Proceedings of the Academy of Human Resource Development Research Conference, Feb 28-March 3, 2012, Denver, Colorado USA.

 

2012 HRD Practices in an emerging Virtual Human Resource Development World: The need for Businesses to Become Active Stakeholders in 21st Century K-12 Pedagogy Conference Proceedings Zellars, J., & Ljubenko, B. (2012). Human Resource Development practices in an emerging Virtual Human Resource Development World: The need for businesses to become active stakeholders in 21st century K-12 pedagogy. Refereed Proceedings of the Academy of Human Resource Development Research Conference, Feb 28-March 3, 2012, Denver, Colorado USA.
2012 Using Virtual 3D Simulations for Management Development Conference Proceedings Eversole, B. A. W. (2012). Using virtual 3D simulations for management development. Refereed Proceedings of the Academy of Human Resource Development Research Conference, Feb 28-March 3, 2012, Denver, Colorado USA.
2012 Immersive Virtual Learning in the Workforce: Building a Roadmap for Organizational

Impact

Conference Proceedings Ndinguri, E., Machtmes, K., & Hatala, J. P. (2012). Immersive virtual learning in the workforce: Building a roadmap for organizational impact. Refereed Proceedings of the Academy of Human Resource Development Research Conference, Feb 28-March 3, 2012, Denver, Colorado USA.
2012 The Utilization of Workplace Technology by Human Resource Professionals Conference Proceedings Thomas, K. (2012). The utilization of workplace technology by Human Resource professionals. Refereed Proceedings of the Academy of Human Resource Development Research Conference, Feb 28-March 3, 2012, Denver, Colorado USA.
2012 The e-HR advantage: The complete handbook for technology-based human resources Book Review Journal Article Yoon, S. W. (2012). The e-HR advantage: The complete handbook for technology-based human resources. Human Resource Development International, 15(2), 259-263. doi: 10.1080/13678868.2012.664694
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Pinterest as Productivity Tool

One way to keep current in today’s workplace is to frequently peruse web content for new and interesting ideas, including news articles, blogs, and social media. A new method to easily save and share useful web content is by “pinning” it on the social network, Pinterest.

Pinterest (pinterest.com)  launched in 2010 and was recently ranked third most used social media behind Facebook and Twitter (Knapp, 2012).  Originally dominated for home use, such as saving recipes and home décor tips, its utility now extends to professional use because of the ease of saving and sharing web-linked images. Essentially, Pinterest is a social bookmarking tool where users have a main “board” where they can either use pre-made categories (“pinboards”) or customize categories for their “pins”. A pin is a digital object such as image or video either from a website or uploaded by the user. Like other social networks, users can collaborate by following other users, share content, tag objects, and make comments. Also, Instructors might consider utilizing Pinterest as an informal learning tool that can also create community in online courses (Delello, 2012) as well as generate new ideas for relevent content.

Pinterest is free to users but an account is required. To join, you will need an invitation from a friend or you can visit www.Pinterest.com and click “Request an invite” and enter your email address. Pinterest requires Facebook or Twitter to create a new account. However, once the account is created, you can easily unlink from your Facebook/Twitter account and log in with your email address instead.  Pinterest “apps” are currently available for mobile devices such as the iPad and iPhone with other mobile access through http://m.pinterest.com . The “power of the pin” is becoming increasingly useful for integrated learning and productivity.

References

Delello, J. (2012). The teacher’s quick guide to Pinterest. Retrieved from http://people.uis.edu/rschr1/et/?p=4285

Knapp, A. (2012). New study pegs Pinterest as the number 3 social website.  Retrieved from

http://www.forbes.com/sites/alexknapp/2012/04/09/new-study-pegs-pinterest-as-the-number-3-social-website/

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ePortfolios as spaces for Virtual HRD

Sophisticated technologies are creating highly intuitive and collaborative spaces. According to Bennett, McWhorter and Sankey (2012), electronic portfolios (ePortfolios) offer metrics for tracking performance improvement and competency progression in graduate medical education (GME).

Further, ePortfolios foster transition from higher education to the workforce by providing opportunities for students to “showcase” their best work, reflection, and documentation of development over time (Light, Chen & Ittelson, 2012). And, ePortfolios represent a microcosm of Virtual HRD as these integrated environments are utilized by individuals, teams, and organizations to create, examine, and collaborate around these dynamic collections of digital artificats (McWhorter & Bennett, 2012). New uses and purposes and contexts are being examined for these dynamic spaces which may “optimize system performance” (McWhorter & Lindhjem, 2012, p. 3).

References

Bennett, E. E., McWhorter, R. R., & Sankey, Z. (2012). Eportfolios as Virtual HRD. A review of literature and analysis of a tool for graduate medical education. Published in the Proceedings of the Academy of Human Resource Development International Conference in the Americas, Denver, February 28-March 4, 2012

Light, T., Chen, H. L., & Ittelson, J. C. (2012). Documenting learning with ePortfolios: A guide for college instructors. San Francisco, CA: Wiley & Sons.

McWhorter, R. R, & Lindhjem, K. A. (2012). Exploring a virtual learning environment for nanotechnology safety training. Published in the Proceedings of the Academy of Human Resource Development International Conference in the Americas, Denver, February 28-March 4, 2012.

McWhorter, R. R., & Bennett, E. E. (2012). Fostering transition from higher education to workforce: A literature review of ePortfolios as Virtual Human Resource Development. Published in the Proceedings of the Academy of Human Resource Development International Conference in the Americas, Denver, February 28-March 4, 2012.

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Augmented Reality for Virtual HRD

By definition, Virtual HRD is about leveraging technologically integrative environments for increasing learning capacity (Fazarro & McWhorter, 2011).  Augmented reality (AR) has been posited as a likely place to examine Virtual HRD (Mancuso, Chlup & McWhorter, 2010).

At its essence, Augmented reality (AR) is “the layering of digital information on top of the real world, usually using a webcam, computer, tablet or smartphone…increasingly being used for marketing and retail” (Wehner, 2011, p. 110). For instance, AR can be used to preview fashion and other items for online shoppers: 

 

or, to preview a college  prospectus that comes to life:

or, just for fun to build community:

And, a new medium for literacy….a pop up book that comes to life with technology:

According to Wu (2011) smart phones are changing customary text-based access to information that is primarly visual-based. There has been  explosion of apps for mobile devices for AR that include vision, orientation and location technology changing the way we access information.

AR is being adopted by the military for instantly transferring technical training information


 

and, AR is being researched for medical training to see how organs and systems work within the human body.

While virtual reality allows users to see an invented world, AR allows the user to see the real world with added relevant information.  It is this layering of information that shows promise for building the learning capacity and work processes of individuals, groups and organizations….thus enabling Virtual HRD.

References

Fazarro, D. E., & McWhorter, R. R. (2011). Leveraging green computing for increased viability and sustainability. Journal of Technology Studies, 37(2), 116-129.

Mancuso, D. S., Chlup, D. T., & McWhorter, R. R. (2010). A study of adult learning in a virtual environment. Advances in Developing Human Resource Development, 12(6), 691-699.

Wehner, P. (2011). A vision of the future. Estates Gazette, 1135, 109-111.

Wu, Y. (2011). Why is augmented reality so important? Retrieved from http://curiosity.discovery.com/question/why-augmented-reality-so-important

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